Sikhi Teachings & Traditions

*/ Sikh Duties | Conclusions 10. Conclusions We have referred to the two aspects from which the problem of duties in Sikhism may be examined. These are: 1. the general principle of duties, raza , and 2. some specific ethico-organisational duties, Rehat . The most conspicuous among the organisational imperatives relate to the wearing of the 5 Ks , namely:

Ardās jeb lūgšana un pieminēšana – tā ir formalizēta lūgšana, kuru Sikhi, individuāli vai kopienā, skaita no rītiem un vakaros, un patiesībā – kad vien reliģisks kalpojums tiek veikts, tāpat arī – sākot vai noslēdzot kādu ģimenes, sabiedrisku vai reliģisku pasākumu. Ardās nav rakstīts Guru Granth Sahib – Sikhu Svētajos Rakstos; tā ir lūgšana, kurā izteiktas Sikhu kopienas ilgas vairāku

*/ Wisdom Wisdom , as a fundamental virtue, plays a key role in the ethics of the Sikhs. The terms which are generally used to denote wisdom and the wise man are gian and giani respectively. But other terms such as mut, mun, budh and bibek budh are used also to convey the ideal of wisdom or the sense of

*/ Truthfulness Veracity is another virtue which is accorded a very high value. Truthfulness , however, ought to be distinguished from ‘ Truth ’ in the metaphysical sense since the term sach is used in the Ādi Granth both in the ethical sense of truthfulness as well as for the Absolute ‘Dynamic-existent’, or Reality . Some scholars of Sikhism, who

*/ Justice Virtue of justice (niaon or tapāvas) is touched upon in various ways in Sikhism and is considered to be an important virtue in terms of its impact on the self as well as on social relationship. At times the virtue of justice is referred to in terms of social equality : This is seen when Sikhism seeks to

*/ Temperance The virtue of temperance or self-control ( sanjam ) also finds a place in the scheme of the Sikh ethics. The virtue is regarded both as moderation and as regulation or direction of the lower by the higher. Guru Amardas poses a question in regard to the nature of temperance. He asks, “ What shall I seize upon

*/ Courage Courage is a central virtue in the ethics of the Sikhs. It may easily be recognised that a man devoid of courage is a man without authenticity. Courage is a complex virtue. It embodies both fortitude as well as valour and although these two are grouped under one character they involve different responses to the situation. Historically in

*/ Humility Humility is a virtue which has both personal as well as social importance: When viewed from the personal angle it consists of having a humble estimate of one’s own merit and from the social one, it consists of checking the tendency to expect and demand approbation and subservience from others in recognition of the merit one possesses. It

*/ Contentment Contentment (santokh from santosh, Sanskrit root tu ś , happiness, calmness) is a virtue which plays an important role in the ethics of the Sikhs: Sikhism has sought to project a comprehensive approach to life, inclusive of activity. This activism, in harmony with the spiritual ideal of human life, is central to Sikhism: But activism has some possibility

*/ Conclusion We have presented the various aspects of the virtues of wisdom, truthfulness, justice, temperance, courage, humility and contentment. It may be asked whether any hierarchy of these virtues has been attempted in Sikhism: The answer is in the negative. One does find isolated references to certain virtues or certain groups of virtues but any systematic gradation is not