Sikhi Teachings & Traditions

*/ 1. Kām (concupiscence) Kām , as a disposition, is criticised by the Gurus in Sikhism but the word kām is used by them very often without delineating its meanings. However, generally speaking, the Gurus use kām in the sense of an unbalancing propensity. Guru Nānak says, “ And kām is the adviser... and subjects are blind and like the

*/ 2. Lobh (covetousness) In Gurśabadratnākar, Bhai Kahan Singh renders lobh as the “ desire to possess what belongs to others ,” though the propensity, as stated in the Ādi Granth, seems to stretch beyond these meanings. Guru Arjan Dev refers to it thus, “O lobh thou has swayed even the best of men by thy waves. And men’s minds

*/ 3. Haumain The doctrine of Haumain is basic to Sikh theology. The present state of man's consciousness, the Gurus say, is egoistic , i.e. it is governed by Haumain. The Gurus call such a person Manmukh . In this normal state of man, his self-will and animal propensities dominate. The ideal man, with the highest level of consciousness or

*/ 4. Krodh (wrath) Krodh ( wrath ) is another emotion recognised in Sikhism which serves as a spring of conation. Individuals and nations, under the sway of this emotion, may be led to their own destruction, as well as that of those towards whom it is directed. Guru Arjan Dev says, “O, krodh (wrath), O father of strife, you

*/ 3. Moh (attachment and delusion) Moh , as a propensity, is understood is two meanings, though both of them are inter-related: The term is used to convey the sense of delusion , loss of consciousness, bewilderment, perplexity, error and folly. It is an inability to view the values in right perspective. But it is also used in the sense

*/ 5. Ahaṅkāra (pride) Ahaṅkāra (pride), is another of the springs of action: If one takes into consideration all the references to it in the Sikh scripture and allied literature, it would be easily seen that Ahaṅkāra is considered to be a greater evil than the other propensities. But before we commence our examination of this propensity it may be

*/ 2. The World Sikhism proclaims the dynamic reality and authenticity of the world and life: " God created the world of life and planted Nām therein, making it the place of righteous activity ." “ God created the world and permeated it with His Light ." Since Nām has not only created the world but is also supporting, controlling

*/ 4. Deliverance from Ego The Gurus are not pessimistic about the world or this ego- centric condition of man: They emphasise that man is not only capable of transcending this ego-consciousness, but is destined to do so. Their entire message is meant to solve this problem. Theirs is a crusade to enable man to rise above his present level

*/ 5. Goal The next issue is as to what is the goal in Sikhism: In this field the Gurus have made a completely radical departure from the general religious tradition, more especially from the Indian tradition. Many misunderstandings about the ideology, growth and history of Sikhism, arise because of the fallacious assumption that goal in Sikhism is the same

*/ 6. Gurmukh or the Ideal Man The Gurus describe the qualities of the Gurmukh and the role he is expected to play in life. These draw a clear picture of the ideal life in Sikhism. The lives of the Gurus are another indication of that kind of life, the seeker and the Gurmukh are supposed to lead. In fact,